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An understanding of the biological basis for how pathogens cause disease and the immunological basis of resistance to pathogenic microorganisms requires insight into several basic factors that together direct the initiation and outcome of pathogenic infections. The interaction of pathogens with the host is frequently thought to consist of three stages, namely, entry and colonization of the microorganism in host tissue, pathogenic invasion and growth in host tissues along with the elaboration of toxic substances, and the inflammatory response of the host. These stages reflect the more traditional concepts of infection (presence of pathogen in a host) and disease (reaction to the infection). Even though these terms are often used interchangeably, when signs and symptoms of disease are present, the term disease and not infection should be used. Signs refer to responses measurable in both animals and humans, such as temperature increases, whereas symptoms indicate being able to report how one feels during illness and are thus limited to humans beyond infancy (perhaps excepting crying and other nonverbal indications infants have of indicating distress. Many organisms may infect an individual without causing significant disease, hence the need for distinguishing between infection and disease.

It is interesting that many bacterial factors that causes diseases in mammals also cause disease in plants, worms, fungi, and fruit flies. Toxin elaboration is one of the best-characterized molecular mechanisms of microorganism pathogenesis, while host factors such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNF-α, kinins, inflammatory proteins, products of complement activation, and mediators derived from arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotrienes) and cellular degranulation (histamine) readily contribute to the severity of disease. The interplay of these factors will dictate the severity of the disease, which may range from mild to severe even among individuals infected with the same microorganism. One of the major functions that attenuate the course of disease is host immune responses, which often account for the discrepancy in disease severity among different individuals.

Viruses

Pathogen Involved Disease / Infection
   
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

Congenital CMV

CMV pneumonia

Interstitial pneumonia

   
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)

Infectious Mononucleosis

Burkitt’s Lymphoma

Nasopharyngeal Cancer

   
Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Hepatitis A
   
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Hepatitis B
   
Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Hepatitis E
   
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Cold Sore
Genital Herpes
Keratoconjunctivitis
   
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genital HPV
Cervical Cancer
   
Influenza A virus Influenza
   
Measles Virus Measles
   
Mumps Virus Mumps
   
Rabies Virus Rabies
   
Rhinovirus Common Cold
   
Rubella Virus German Measles /
3-Day Measles
   
SARS-CoV Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
   
Smallpox Virus Smallpox
   
Varicella Zoster Virus Chickenpox
Shingles
Pneumonia
   
West Nile Virus West Nile Fever
Encephalitis
Meningitis
   

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Gram-Negative Bacteria

Pathogen Involved Disease / Infection
   
Bordetella pertussis Whooping Cough
   

Campylobacter jejuni

Enterocolitis
   

Enteropathogenic

Escherichia coli

Diarrheal Disease
   

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome
   

Enterotoxigenic

Escherichia coli

Traveler's Diarrhea
   

Francisella tularensis

Tularemia
   

Helicobacter pylori

Peptic Ulcer
Gastritis
   

Haemophilus influenzae

Meningitis
Pneumonia
Epiglottis
Osteomyelitis
Sinusitis
Pericarditis
Endocarditis
   
Klebsiella pneumoniae Pneumonia
Septecemia
Meningitis

Legionella pneumophila

Legionnaires’ Disease
   
Pasteurella multocida Fowl Cholera
Meningitis
   

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Endocarditis

Primary Pneumonia

Bacteremia

Otitis

Keratitis

Neonatal Ophthalmia

Folliculitis

Acne Vulgaris

   
Salmonella typhimurium Gastroenteritis
   
Shigella Shigellosis
   
Vibrio cholerae Cholera
   
Vibrio parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis
   
Vibrio vulnificus Septicaemia
   
Yersinia enterocolitica Mesenteric Lymphadenitis
Enteritis
Terminal Ileitis
   
Yersinia pestis Bubonic Plague
   
Neisseria meningitidis Meningococcal Meningitis
   
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gonorrhea
   

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Gram-Positive Bacteria

Pathogen Involved Disease / Infection
   
Bacillus anthracis Antrax
   
Bacillus cereus Rapid-Onset Emetic Syndrome
Slow-Onset Diarrheal Syndrome.
   
Clostridium botulinum Botulism
   
Clostridium tetani Tetanus
   
Clostridium difficile Pseudomembranous Colitis
   
Clostridium perfringens Necrosis
Bacteremia
Emphysematous Cholecystitis
Gas Gangrene / Clostridial Myonecrosis
   
Corynebacterium diptheriae Diphtheria
   
Listeria monocytogenes Listeriosis
   
Staphylococcus aureus Impetigo
Scalded Skin Syndrome
Pneumonia
Meningitis
Osteomyelitis
Endocarditis
Toxic Shock Syndrome
   
Streptococcus agalactiae Sepsis
Pneumonia
Meningitis
   
Streptococcus pyogenes Puerperal Fever
Scarlet Fever
   
Streptococcus pneumoniae Sepsis
Otitis Media
Pneumonia
   

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Bacteria with Unusual Morphology

Pathogen Involved Disease / Infection
   
Borrelia burgdorfei Lyme Disease / Lyme Borreliosis
Lyme Neuroborreliosis
   
Chlamydia pneumoniae Atherosclerosis
Alzheimer’s Disease
Pharyngitis
Bronchitis
Arthritis
Multiple Scerosis
Asthma
   
Mycobacterium leprae Leprosy / Hansen's Disease
   
Mycoplasma pneumoniae Tracheobronchitis
Primary Atypical Pneumonia
   
Rickettsia prowazekii Epidemic Typhus Fever
   
Rickettsia rickettsia Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
   
Treponema pallidum Syphilis
   

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Protozoan and Helminth Parasites

Pathogen Involved Disease / Infection
   
Leishmania major Leishmaniasis
   
Schistosoma mansoni Schistosomiasis
   
Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasmosis
   
Trypanosoma cruzi Trypanosomiasis / Chagas' Disease
   

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Fungi

Pathogen Involved Disease / Infection
   
Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillosis
   
Candida albicans Candidiasis / Thrush
   
Coccidioides immitis Coccidioidomycosis / Valley Fever
   
Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptococcosis
   
Histoplasma capsulatum Histoplasmosis
   
Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumocystis Pneumonia / Pneumocystosis

 

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Copyright © 2010. Brought to you by: The Journal of Undergraduate Biological Studies (J. Ugrad. Biol. S). The Pathogen Profile Dictionary has been created for educational purposes only. The information presented herein cannot be recreated without the author's consent. For contact information, Click Here.